A non-addictive opioid under development by Phoenix PharmaLabs (Utah), PPL-103, has demonstrated the potential to be a treatment for opioid, as well as cocaine, addictions, as published in a poster by Lawrence Toll, PhD, professor of biomedical science at the Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, and chief neuropharmacologist of Phoenix PharmaLabs. He presented the results at a February 2018 National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences-sponsored symposium. PPL-103 demonstrated an ability to reduce cocaine self-administration among rats, particularly those who were dependent on cocaine, completely blocking reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. The drug showed reduced addiction liability and fewer side effects compared to traditional opioids and may have potential as a treatment for drug abuse. PPL-103 is a patented analog that binds strongly to all three opioid receptors in the brain, partially stimulating the receptors in a more balanced manner. This partial stimulation derives potent analgesic benefit, but is not strong enough to produce serious side effects associated with any single receptor, resulting in an opioid analgesic that appears to be non-addicting.